Mechanical Engineering Projects

A project on Computer Controlled Drilling Machine

Current development in industry has been towards computer controlled manufacturing to increase quality and quantity of products. Manual manufacturing of such items as the circuit board will have a big faulty case and uneven quality.Then I have developed an automatic print circuit board drilling machine, which is controlled by computer. 

ABSTRACT

       The main aim of computer controlled drilling machine is to drill holes on printed circuit boards (PCB) in a specified area.The program is written in assembly language and a step by step approach is implemented to control four motors independently.It generally consists of transformer, PC, MAX232, diodes,microcontroller,relay,stepper motors,AC motor,drilling machine,limit switches,transistors etc.Co-ordinates are given through keyboard of PC by the set of rules and regulations.The information sent from PC to Micro controller is passed via  MAX232 which converts TIA/EIA-232-F inputs to 5V TTL/CMOS levels.By this micro controller commands the stepper motors and AC motor to be in home position before the work done.

  • The entire working depends upon driving of stepper motors in both the directions (clockwise or anti-clockwise).
  • The system is programmed to produce the pulses in a sequence at four different outputs (9  5  6  A). These sequential programmed outputs energize the motor winding one after the other in a sequence.
  • The information from micro controller is passed to drilling machine via relay which converts 5V supply to 12V to rotate drill.As per the data fed to the machine, it can drill as many holes as in specific area.
  • After completing the task, the computer displays on its monitor that the job is completed.To avoid friction, the mechanical transmission part of each axis is designed with sliding channels.

Aim of the Project:

  • The main aim of the project lies in interfacing or in simple words, is to make a mechanical system work, making use of a personal computer of basic configuration.
  • This project is carried on keeping in mind, the needs of a small scale industry, which need small sized components in a few number, which by other processes would cost them more.
  • This project makes use of a printed circuit board that interfaces a drilling machine with a personal computer. This system is mainly aimed at small scale production of printed circuit boards in small scale industries.
  • The system has an advantage of simplicity in operation, moreover the cost of production comes down for a small scale sector.
  • Though the system involves many small electronic parts it is easy to study the working, and in operation, as we use the simple user-friendly language in programming the software.

MECHANICAL CONSTRUCTION

  • The goal here is to design and build a very low-cost, very simple, desktop drilling machine, which is used for drilling the PCB’s (printed circuit boards).
  • Drilling the PCB’s manually consumes lot of time and due to errors by drilling at wrong points, causes wasting many PCB’s.
  • All these problems can be avoided by implementing Computer control concept, there by this project work is taken up and a prototype module is constructed for the live demonstration.
  • Since it is a prototype module, size of the work or drilling size of the PCB is minimized. Due to the restriction, the machine cannot drill PCB of more than 12 X 20cm.
  • The following is the brief description of mechanical work.
COMPLETE BLOCK DIAGRAM WITH DESCRIPTION

 The block diagram of computer controlled drilling machine is shown below which consists of the following parts.They are Microcontroller,stepper motors,AC motor,limit switches,relay,PC,MAX232 etc.

Computer Controlled Drilling Machine project
A project on Computer Controlled Drilling Machine
FUNCTION OF A PROGRAM
  • A set of encoded information, which provides coordinate values and other instructions to indicate how the machine tool is moving in relation to a work piece in order to achieve a specific desired machining form can be called as function of program.
  • The program should be prepared such that, it should contain all the information for the machining of a component which is input to the computer controlled drilling machine.
  • Depending up on the input from the computer, the system provides signals at the correct time and in the correct sequence to the various drive units of the machine.
  • The machine tool receives information from the computer and does the operation on the machine. The program is prepared by listing the coordinate values of the entire tool paths as suited to machine.
  • In the case of drilling machine, the coordinate values to be prepared for 3D for driving three motors independently.
  • Two motors are used for moving the platform in X and Y directions and the third motor is used to move the drill in Z direction.

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This is the complete explanation about a project on computer controlled drilling machine which is shown in a detailed manner. If you have any doubts, feel free to ask from the comments section. Please Share and Like this blog with the whole world so that it can reach to many.

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